Thursday, January 29, 2015


As we start our fourth month of Bro Sessions I felt it was time to get back to a partner style WOD. In the end it can often be more fun and slightly more bearable when you get to suffer right along side a friend. And after the mile of walking lunges I think we all might just need a hug if not some moral support for this next WOD. So here we go!

Part #1

  • Row a combined 200 calories 
  • Perform a combined 150 Burpees
    • One partner will row 20 calories while the second partner performs 15 Burpees.
    • Continue alternating back and forth until complete

Part #2

  • Complete a combined 60 Bear Complexes (155#/95#)

Part #3

  • AMRAP10
    • Partner #1 performs 20 Sit-ups
    • Partner #2 holds a plank
      • If either partner stops the other partner must as well


Why grains are killing you

Get rid of grains in your diet. You’ve probably heard trainers, CrossFitters and Paleo diet practioners talk about this topic hundreds of times. But do you know the nitty gritty details of what grains do to your body and why they are only one step up from eating poop?

First, when you see “grains,” that means wheat, rice, corn, barley, rye, oats, millet, or sorghum. Grains are killing you. Literally. Very slowly, from the inside out—but they are killing you. I’m going to tell you about the four major ways grains are killing you. It would take Mr. Wizard and Bill Nye the Science Guy combined to fully explain this, so I’m just going to hit the high points. It’s going to get a little complex in a couple places, but you can understand this—I promise.

1)  Lectins
Many plants and animals have defense mechanisms so they don’t get eaten, trampled, or otherwise prevented from reproducing. Roses have thorns. A rhinoceros has a big horn. Poison Ivy has chemicals that make you itch if you get too close. Grains have an Al-Qaeda like defense mechanism called lectins. Now many foods have lectins, but grains have nasty lectins that harm us. Lectins are proteins that we can’t digest. We normally digest proteins into amino acids where they are absorbed by our intestines (our gut). Since we can’t digest lectins, they pass through the wall of our gut undigested as complete proteins. This damages the gut, inflames our bodies, and makes them unable to absorb many of the good proteins that we get from other foods. But that’s not all. The worst part is that our body’s immune system is at a high state of readiness around our gut. After all, the gut can be a nasty place. See what’s in the bowl after you finish in the bathroom? Thirty minutes ago, that was inside your body, and your body’s immune system had to fight off the bacteria and other microbes you might have been exposed to. Now, when lectins pass through the gut as a complete, undigested protein, our body mistakes them for foreign invaders and attacks with the immune system.

After repeated attacks from lectins (your daily bowl of Special K) your body gets smart and makes antibodies to automatically attack these nasty proteins. It builds immunity. The problem? Sometimes part of the lectin looks a lot like normal body tissue. You don’t want your immune system attacking your normal body tissue, but that’s exactly what can happen. Check out why: Lectins are proteins. Proteins are made of particular arrangements of amino acids, stacked just like Legos. Let’s take a look at a hypothetical lectin that has a little piece of it made from an arrangement of amino acids A, B, C, and D.


Now let’s take a look at another protein in your body. As an example, we’ll use a protein in your Pancreas, but there are countless examples. This protein is much longer than the lectin, but it happens to have a little segment of amino acids with the same Lego pattern as the lectin.

A protein in your body that you would really like to keep

That particular lectin looks a lot like an important protein in your pancreas, and now your immune system attacks that protein in your pancreas, rendering your pancreas unable of producing insulin. This is Type 1 Diabetes. What if the lectin looks like myelin basic protein (MBP) in your brain? Multiple Sclerosis. An important kidney protein? Nephropathy. The list goes on. Grains turn your body’s immune system against you. This phenomenon is called auto-immune disease. It’s very real. We haven’t even made it to #2 and grains are already killing us—quite literally.

So you’ve been eating grains all your life and you’re not dead yet, right? Why haven’t you been stricken with something described above? The human body is an incredibly resilient biological machine. That’s the only way we’ve been able to survive, not thrive, with grains for the last 10,000 years. After grains were introduced to humans, we lost an average of six inches in height. Do you think that’s coincidence, or that we’re trying to feed our bodies with material that we’re not genetically equipped to handle? But yes, you could go all your life eating grains and never get one of the many auto-immune diseases. In the end, you may be lucky. I suppose it depends on whether you’re a gambler. But remember, about 18 sides of that 20-sided die look pretty ugly.

2)  Insulin Response
It has been widely documented the importance of hormonal balance between insulin and glucagon. Grain-based foods cause huge, nasty insulin spikes, making it almost impossible to achieve hormonal balance. This means that as long as you eat grains you’re going to experience inflammation in your muscles, joints, and other tissues because you’re not in hormonal balance. Your body is also going to stay in fat storage mode instead of fat release mode, and you won’t be able to achieve the body composition you want.
And if that wasn’t bad enough, insulin is a hormone that promotes tissue growth. Do you know what we call uncontrolled tissue growth because a little piece of DNA gets damaged? Cancer. Yep, the medical community is finding high insulin levels linked to cancer.

3)  Protease Inhibitors
In addition to those nasty lectins and elevated insulin response, grains find yet another way to pour gasoline on the fire. Protease inhibitors further block the digestion of proteins in your gut. That includes lectins, so they compound the lectin problem. But that also includes good proteins that you are getting from quality foods. Grains aren’t content to just stand in a corner and be anti-social. They’re going to piss in the punch bowl and ruin the party for everybody! So you are eating plenty of chicken breast, grass-fed beef, and lamb in addition to the grains in your diet? You’re not getting as much of those proteins as you think, because grains are blocking their absorption by your gut. Just eating something doesn’t mean you’ll absorb it and actually put it to use in your body. Grains are masters of that fact.

4)  Phytates

Grains want to reproduce. You can’t blame them for that. All plants and animals down to the smallest virus are hard wired to reproduce. A whole grain contains all the pieces necessary for reproduction. The bran is the hard outer covering that protects the rest. The brown part of brown rice is the bran. The germ is the actual reproductive organ of the grain. The endosperm is a neat little package of starch and some protein that will feed the baby germ. And one thing the baby germ will need is trace amounts of nutrients like iron, zinc, magnesium, and calcium. So the grain contains chemicals called phytates that help it collect these precious resources. The phytates bind to these metals saying, “They’re mine! All mine!” trying to save them for the germ. Unfortunately, their selfish behavior doesn’t stop once they’re in your gut. And guess what, you need those nutrients too! But if phytates are in the picture then your gut doesn’t stand a chance. The phytates bind to the nutrients first, and you aren’t able to absorb them! Once again, simply eating something does not guarantee it is absorbed. No zinc for you! Phytates and lectins are sometimes referred to as “anti-nutrients.”

Ladies and gentlemen, that’s the short course on why grains don’t fit into a healthy lifestyle. I know it hurts to find out that our beloved Bunny Bread is out to kill us, but it really is true. We didn’t grow up thinking that, did we? But why does that matter? My parents grew up when sexism was accepted. My grandparents grew up when racism and smoking was commonplace. My great, great grandparents might have thought that bleeding yourself with leaches would cure disease. They were all equally wrong, and equally comfortable with those ideas, because they were accepted as the status quo. The point is that facts and reality are completely irreverent of the ideas you grew up with or are comfortable with. If the facts about health point a certain way, I think we are obligated to ourselves and our loved ones to explore those facts regardless of how uncomfortable they might be.

So here’s my challenge to you: Eat grain-free for a month. But to reap the benefits, you have to be totally grain free. No flour tortillas on weekends. No eating toast at breakfast just because the rest of your family likes it and has seen you eat toast for 30 years. Totally grain free, for an entire month. A word of warning: You’re going to have a period of about two weeks where you will constantly feel tired and “foggy.” This is normal. It’s you getting off the crack, and it will pass by the end of the month, leaving you feeling great!. That’s right, if you truly go grain free for a month then you’ll be 5-10 lbs lighter, have more energy, and look better than you can ever remember. After that, if you want to go back to eating grains—do it. Because you won’t want to go back. You’ll be happy and energetic, full after meals, performing better at your workouts, and shopping for new clothes. Oh, and you’ll be less likely to die from one of the 3,000 diseases of affluence that were unknown to our ancestors that didn’t eat grains. Did I mention that part? Folks, if I’m lying, I’m dying. Try it. You won’t be sorry.

Thursday, January 22, 2015


Who is up for a little monostructurality? I am not 100% sure that is even a word but it sounds impressive. Perhaps if we popularize its usage enough we can get it added into the dictionary. (There is a deliberate process for getting new words put into the dictionary with rules and requirements However, I digress let's get down to business. That's what we're here for right?! There was no imagination or creativity used here, in fact I got the idea for this one from SEAL FIT so direct any vitriol in their direction not mine lol.

Part #1

  • Mobilize your legs for 20-30 minutes

Part #2
  • 1 Mile of Walking Lunges (add weight up to 20 pounds if possible)

Part #3
  • Mobilize your legs for 20-30 minutes (specifically foam roll, lax ball, Supernova, Yoga Tune Up balls)

Workout Breakdown
  • Added weight is no obligatory so do not use added weight unless you are sure you can.
  • If you add weight add it sparingly and again do not feel obligated to use 20 pounds, but do not use any more than 20 pounds.
  • If you plan on using a weight vest please try and bring your own as there are only a few here at the gym and they will likely get snatched up so plan accordingly. These can prove to be a worthwhile investment and they are sold at places like Sports Authority or Dick's Sporting Goods. You will use it more than once too!
  • Feel free to adjust the distance to 1200m, 800m, or 400m. Choose based upon how you feel and whether you have done lunges at this volume previously.


Wednesday, January 21, 2015


While I do love to research and write about fitness and fitness related topics, sometimes I have to give credit to work that has already been produced. After all, if there is already an explanation for something that is relevant to our collective pursuits then why not share it in its original form rather than recreate it from scratch. For those of you that read my last post you may have gotten he sense that I admire Dr. Rhonda Patrick and in fact think she is one of the brightest individuals currently in the Health and Wellness arena. Please check her out on Facebook, YouTube and her website.

This post will explain how heat can be used to increase growth hormone, muscular hypertrophy, endurance, and otherwise aid performance. If the reading gets to be too much please scroll to the end as I have also included a link to her video discussion of this same topic.

It’s authored by Rhonda Perciavalle Patrick, Ph.D, and it’s comprehensive and it originally appeared on Tim Ferris blog. But before we get started, you need to read some background and warnings…

Heat is no joke.

People can die from excessive heat so read these warnings carefully…


Please don’t be stupid and kill yourself. It would make us both quite unhappy. Consult a doctor before doing anything described in this post or on this blog.


The material on this blog is for informational purposes only. As each individual situation is unique, you should use proper discretion, in consultation with a health care practitioner, before undertaking the protocols, diet, exercises, techniques, training methods, or otherwise described herein.

OK, will all that out of the way, here we go.

Consider looking at this piece as what elite athletes are likely to augment to their training and drug regimens.

The following is a guest article by Rhonda Perciavalle Patrick, Ph.D., who works with Dr. Bruce Ames of the Ames carcinogenicity test, the 23rd most-cited scientist in all fields between 1973 and 1984. Dr. Patrick also conducts clinical trials, performed aging research at Salk Institute for Biological Studies, and did graduate research at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, where she focused on cancer, mitochondrial metabolism, and apoptosis.


For the most part, people don’t like to get hot.

The massive indoor climate control systems and pleasantly chilled water fountains found in most gyms speak to this fact. There are some exceptions — Bikram yoga, for example — but they’re few and far between.

But here’s the surprise: increasing your core temperature for short bursts is not only healthful, it can also dramatically improve performance.

This is true whether it’s done in conjunction with your existing workout or as an entirely separate activity. I’m going to explain how heat acclimation through sauna use (and likely any other non-aerobic activity that increases core body temperature) can promote physiological adaptations that result in increased endurance, easier acquisition of muscle mass, and a general increased capacity for stress tolerance. I will refer to this concept of deliberately acclimating yourself to heat, independent of working out, as “hyperthermic conditioning.”

I’m also going to explain the positive effects of heat acclimation on the brain, including the growth of new brain cells, improvement in focus, learning and memory, and ameliorating depression and anxiety. In addition, you’ll learn how modulation of core temperature might even be largely responsible for “runner’s high” via an interaction between the dynorphin/beta-endorphin opioid systems.

The Effects of Heat Acclimation on Endurance

If you’ve ever run long distances or exercised for endurance, it’s intuitive that increased body temperature will ultimately induce strain, attenuate your endurance performance, and accelerating exhaustion. What might not be as intuitive is this: acclimating yourself to heat independent of aerobic physical activity through sauna use induces adaptations that reduce the later strain of your primary aerobic activity.

Hyperthermic conditioning improves your performance during endurance training activities by causing adaptations, such as improved cardiovascular and thermoregulatory mechanisms (I will explain what these mean) that reduce the negative effects associated with elevations in core body temperature. This helps optimize your body for subsequent exposures to heat (from metabolic activities) during your next big race or even your next workout.

Just a few of the physiological adaptations that occur are:
  • Improved cardiovascular mechanisms and lower heart rate.1
  • Lower core body temperature during workload (surprise!)
  • Higher sweat rate and sweat sensitivity as a function of increased thermoregulatory control.2
  • Increased blood flow to skeletal muscle (known as muscle perfusion) and other tissues.2
  • Reduced rate of glycogen depletion due to improved muscle perfusion.3
  • Increased red blood cell count (likely via erythropoietin).4
  • Increased efficiency of oxygen transport to muscles.4

Hyperthermic conditioning optimizes blood flow to the heart, skeletal muscles, skin, and other tissues because it increases plasma volume. This leads to endurance enhancements in your next workout or race, when your core body temperature is once again elevated.

Being heat acclimated enhances endurance by the following mechanisms…
  1. It increases plasma volume and blood flow to the heart (stroke volume).2,5 This results in reduced cardiovascular strain and lowers the heart rate for the same given workload.2 These cardiovascular improvements have been shown to enhance endurance in both highly trained and untrained athletes.2,5,6
  2. It increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles, keeping them fueled with glucose, esterified fatty acids, and oxygen while removing by-products of the metabolic process such as lactic acid. The increased delivery of nutrients to muscles reduces their dependence on glycogen stores. Endurance athletes often hit a “wall” (or “bonk”) when they have depleted their muscle glycogen stores. Hyperthermic conditioning has been shown to reduce muscle glycogen use by 40%-50% compared to before heat acclimation.3,7 This is presumably due to the increased blood flow to the muscles.3 In addition, lactate accumulation in blood and muscle during exercise is reduced after heat acclimation.5
  3. It improves thermoregulatory control, which operates by activating the sympathetic nervous system and increasing the blood flow to the skin and, thus the sweat rate. This dissipates some of the core body heat. After acclimation, sweating occurs at a lower core temperature and the sweat rate is maintained for a longer period.2

So what sort of gains can you anticipate?

One study demonstrated that a 30-minute sauna session two times a week for three weeks POST-workout increased the time that it took for study participants to run until exhaustion by 32% compared to baseline.4

The 32% increase in running endurance found in this particular study was accompanied by a 7.1% increase in plasma volume and 3.5% increase in red blood cell (RBC) count.4 This increased red blood cell count accompanying these performance gains feed right back into those more general mechanisms we talked about earlier, the most obvious of which being: more red blood cells increase oxygen delivery to muscles. It is thought that heat acclimation boosts the RBC count through erythropoietin (EPO) because the body is trying to compensate for the corresponding rise in plasma volume.4

In other words, hyperthermic conditioning through sauna use doesn’t just make you better at dealing with heat; it makes you better, period. I do want to mention that while these gains were made with a small sample size (N=6) some of the later studies that I point out reinforce this conclusion.

The Effects of Hyperthermic Conditioning on Muscle Hypertrophy (Growth)

Exercise can induce muscular hypertrophy. Heat induces muscular hypertrophy. Both of these together synergize to induce hyper-hypertrophy.

Here are a few of the basics of how muscle hypertrophy works: muscle hypertrophy involves both the increase in the size of muscle cells and, perhaps unsurprisingly, an accompanying increase in strength. Skeletal muscle cells do contain stem cells that are able to increase the number of muscle cells but hypertrophy instead generally involves an increase in size rather than number.

So what determines whether your muscle cells are growing or shrinking (atrophying)?

A shift in the protein synthesis-to-degradation ratio…and an applied workload on the muscle tissue (of course). That’s it.

At any given time your muscles are performing a balancing act between NEW protein synthesis and degradation of existing proteins. The important thing is your net protein synthesis, and not strictly the amount of new protein synthesis occurring. Protein degradation occurs both during muscle use and disuse. This is where hyperthermic conditioning shines: heat acclimation reduces the amount of protein degradation occurring and as a result it increases net protein synthesis and, thus muscle hypertrophy. Hyperthermic conditioning is known to increase muscle hypertrophy by increasing net protein synthesis through three important mechanisms:
  1. Induction of heat shock proteins.8,9
  2. Robust induction of growth hormone.1
  3. Improved insulin sensitivity.10

Exercise induces both protein synthesis and degradation in skeletal muscles but, again, it is the net protein synthesis that causes the actual hypertrophy. When you exercise, you are increasing the workload on the skeletal muscle and, thus, the energetic needs of your muscle cells. The mitochondria found in each of these cells kick into gear in order to help meet this demand and start sucking in the oxygen found in your blood in order to produce new energy in the form of ATP. This process is called oxidative phosphorylation. A by-product of this process, however, is the generation of oxygen free radicals like superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which is more generally referred to simply as “oxidative stress”.

Heat Stress Triggers Heat Shock Proteins That Prevent Protein Degradation.
Oxidative stress is a major source of protein degradation.

For this reason, any means of preventing exercise-induced oxidative protein damage and/or repairing damaged proteins, while keeping the exercise induced protein synthesis, will ultimately cause a net increase of protein synthesis and therefore will be anabolic.

Heat shock proteins (or HSPs), as the name implies, are induced by heat and are a prime example of hormesis. Intermittent exposure to heat induces a hormetic response (a protective stress response), which promotes the expression of a gene called heat shock factor 1 and subsequently HSPs involved in stress resistance.
  • HSPs can prevent damage by directly scavenging free radicals and also by supporting cellular antioxidant capacity through its effects on maintaining glutathione.8,9
  • HSPs can repair misfolded, damaged proteins thereby ensuring proteins have their proper structure and function.8,9

Okay, let’s take a step back from the underlying mechanisms and look at the big picture of heat acclimation in the context of increasing muscle hypertrophy:

It has been shown that a 30-minute intermittent hyperthermic treatment at 41°C (105.8°F) in rats induced a robust expression of heat shock proteins (including HSP32, HSP25, and HSP72) in muscle and, importantly, this correlated with 30% more muscle regrowth than a control group during the seven days subsequent to a week of immobilization.8 This HSP induction from a 30-minute intermittent hyperthermic exposure can persist for up to 48 hours after heat shock.8,9 Heat acclimation actually causes a higher basal (such as when not exercising) expression of HSPs and a more robust induction upon elevation in core body temperature (such as during exercise).11,12,13 This is a great example of how a person can theoretically use hyperthermic conditioning to increase their own heat shock proteins and thereby reap the rewards.
Heat Stress Triggers A Massive Release of Growth Hormone
Another way in which hyperthermic conditioning can be used to increase anabolism is through a massive induction of growth hormone.14,15,1 Many of the anabolic effects of growth hormone are primarily mediated by IGF-1, which is synthesized (mainly in the liver but also in skeletal muscle and other tissues) in response to growth hormone. There are two important mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes the growth of skeletal muscle:
  1. It Increases protein synthesis via activation of the mTOR pathway.16
  2. It decreases protein degradation via inhibition of the FOXO pathway.16

Mice that have been engineered to express high levels of IGF-1 in their muscle develop skeletal muscle hypertrophy, can combat age-related muscle atrophy, and retained the same regenerative capacity as young muscle.17,18 In humans, it has been shown that the major anabolic effects of growth hormone in skeletal muscle may be due to inhibition of muscle protein degradation (anti-catabolic), thereby increasing net protein synthesis.16 In fact, growth hormone administration to endurance athletes for four weeks has been shown to decrease muscle protein oxidation (a biomarker for oxidative stress) and degradation by 50%.19

My point is good news. You don’t need to take exogenous growth hormone. Sauna use can cause a robust release in growth hormone, which varies according to time, temperature, and frequency.1,15

For example, two 20-minute sauna sessions at 80°C (176°F) separated by a 30-minute cooling period elevated growth hormone levels two-fold over baseline.1,15 Whereas, two 15-minute sauna sessions at 100°C (212°F) dry heat separated by a 30-minute cooling period resulted in a five-fold increase in growth hormone.1,15 However, what’s perhaps more amazing is that repeated exposure to whole-body, intermittent hyperthermia (hyperthermic conditioning) through sauna use has an even more profound effect on boosting growth hormone immediately afterward: two one-hour sauna sessions a day at 80°C (176°F) dry heat (okay, this is a bit extreme) for 7 days was shown to increase growth hormone by 16-fold on the third day.14 The growth hormone effects generally persist for a couple of hours post-sauna.1 It is also important to note that when hyperthermia and exercise are combined, they induce a synergistic increase in growth hormone.20
Increased Insulin Sensitivity
Insulin is an endocrine hormone that primarily regulates glucose homeostasis, particularly by promoting the uptake of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, insulin also plays a role in protein metabolism, albeit to a lesser degree than IGF-1. Insulin regulates protein metabolism in skeletal muscle by the two following mechanisms:
  1. It increases protein synthesis by stimulating the uptake of amino acids (particularly BCAAs) into skeletal muscle.21
  2. It decreases protein degradation through inhibition of the proteasome, which is a protein complex inside cells that is largely responsible for the degradation of most cellular proteins.22

In humans, there is more evidence indicating that the major anabolic effects of insulin on skeletal muscle are due to its inhibitory action on protein degradation.

For example, insulin infusion in healthy humans, which increased insulin to normal physiological postprandial (after a meal) levels, suppressed muscle protein breakdown without significant affecting muscle protein synthesis.23, 21 In contrast, insulin deficiency (such as in type 1 diabetes mellitus) and insulin resistance (to a lesser extent) are both associated with increased skeletal muscle breakdown.22,24

For this reason, hyperthermic conditioning may also lend itself to promoting muscle growth by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing muscle protein catabolism. Intermittent hyperthermia has been demonstrated to reduce insulin resistance in an obese diabetic mouse model. Insulin resistant diabetic mice were subjected to 30 minutes of hyperthermic treatment, three times a week for twelve weeks. This resulted in a 31% decrease in insulin levels and a significant reduction in blood glucose levels, suggesting re-sensitization to insulin.10 The hyperthermic treatment specifically targeted the skeletal muscle by increasing the expression of a type of transporter known as GLUT 4, which is responsible for the transporting of glucose into skeletal muscle from the bloodstream. Decreased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle is one of the mechanisms that leads to insulin resistance.

Relevance for Muscle Injury
Animal studies using rats have shown that a 30-minute and 60-minute hyperthermic treatment at 41°C (105.8°F) attenuates hindlimb muscle atrophy during disuse by 20% and 32%, respectively.9,25 In order to return to a hypertrophic state after injury, muscle regrowth (“reloading”) must occur. Muscle reloading, while important for hypertrophy, induces oxidative stress particularly after periods of disuse, which slows the rate of muscle regrowth. A 30-minute hyperthermic treatment at 41°C (105.8°F) increased soleus muscle regrowth by 30% after reloading as compared to non-hyperthermic treatment in rats.8 The effects of whole body hyperthermia on preventing muscle atrophy and increasing muscle regrowth after immobilization were shown to occur as a consequence of elevated HSP levels.8,9,25

During injury, you may be immobilized but you don’t have to be very mobile to sit in the sauna a few times a week to boost your HSPs! This is a clear win in the injury and recovery department. Remember, hyperthermic conditioning (from sauna use) results in an elevation in HSP levels under normal conditions and leads to an even greater boost during exercise (or when core body temperature is elevated).11-13
Relevance for Rhabdomyolysis
Hyperthermic conditioning may also be able to protect against rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown due to severe muscle overuse) through the induction of HSP32 also known as heme oxygenase 1.26,27

Rhabdomyolysis releases myoglobin, a byproduct from broken down muscle tissue, into the bloodstream, which can cause kidney failure.

Since myoglobin is a heme-containing protein, HSP32 (heme oxygenase 1) can rapidly degrade myoglobin before it has toxic effects on the kidney.26,27 In fact, induction of HSP32 in rats has been shown to protect against rhabdomyolysis in rats.26 This function of HSP32 is very different than the classical role of HSPs in preventing protein degradation. Again, heat acclimation causes a higher basal expression of HSPs and a more robust expression upon heat stress.11-13 The more heat acclimated your body is (the pre-conditioning is the key here), the higher your HSP32 expression will be during physical activity and this will protect your kidneys from the toxic myoglobin breakdown product.

That’s a sweet deal.
In flies and worms, a brief exposure to heat treatment has been shown to increase their lifespan by up to 15% and it’s been shown that this effect is specifically mediated by HSPs.28,29,30

While studying the effects of something like hyperthermic conditioning on longevity is inherently hard in humans (obviously), there have been some preliminary positive associations with variations in the HSP70 gene associated with increased expression and longevity.31
Effects of Heat Stress on The Brain
One of the ways that the brain responds to injury on the cellular level is increased HSP production.

This includes ischemic injury (i.e. stroke), traumatic injury, and excitotoxicity (epileptic).32 What complicates things, however, in the context of “hyperthermic conditioning” (or deliberate heat acclimation) is that while on the one hand hyperthermia has been shown to reduce the frequency of seizures and the damage they cause post-conditioning, hyperthermia can actually increase the damage caused by seizures if they occur during a period of heat stress. In other words, the stress and its damaging effects are additive.33,34

That (and it’s implicit warning) being said, sauna-induced hyperthermia has been shown to induce a robust activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.

One study demonstrated that men that stayed in the sauna that was heated to 80°C (176°F) until subjective exhaustion increased norepinephrine by 310%, had a 10-fold increase in prolactin, and actually modestly decreased cortisol.1,15 Similarly, in another study, women that spent 20-minute sessions in a dry sauna twice a week had a 86% increase in norepinephrine and a 510% increase in prolactin after the session.35

Norepinephrine helps with focus and attention while prolactin promotes myelin growth, which makes your brain function faster, which is key in repairing nerve cell damage.36,37

In addition to increasing norepinephrine, heat acclimation has actually been shown to increase biological capacity to store norepinephrine for later release.38 In light of the fact that the norepinephrine response to exercise has been demonstrated to be blunted in children with ADHD and that norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRI) are frequently prescribed to treat ADHD (among other things), use of heat stress and subsequent acclimation should be tested for it’s effectiveness as an interesting alternative therapeutic approach.39
Heat stress has been shown to increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) more than exercise alone when used in conjunction with exercise.40

This is important because BDNF increases the growth of new brain cells as well as the survival of existing neurons. An increase in neurogenesis is thought to be responsible for enhancing learning.41 BDNF’s role in the brain is also to modulate neuronal plasticity and long-term memory, while also having been shown to ameliorate anxiety and depression from early-life stressful events.42 In addition to the function BDNF plays in the brain when it’s released as a consequence of exercise, BDNF is also secreted by muscle where it plays a role in muscle repair and the growth of new muscle cells.43

While BDNF has specifically been shown to play some role in relieving depression from stressful early-life events, whole-body hyperthermia has also been demonstrated to improve depression in cancer patients.44 In this particular study, however, it was speculated that beta-endorphin (which is also induced by hyperthermia), not BDNF, may have been the agent responsible for this effect. As an aside, one of the reasons whole-body hyperthermia is sometimes used with cancer patients is because it can enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents.45
The Runner’s High and The Role of Dynorphin
Ever wonder what is responsible for the “runner’s high” or post-exercise highs, in general? You’ve probably heard that it’s due to endorphins, but that’s not the whole story.

Beta-endorphins are endogenous (natural) opioids that are a part of the body’s natural painkiller system, known as the mu opioid system, which block pain messages from spreading from the body to the brain in a process called antinociception. What is lesser known is that the body also produces a peptide known as dynorphin (a “kappa opioid”), which is generally responsible for the sensation of dysphoria. The discomfort experienced during intense exercise, exposure to extreme heat (such as in a sauna), or eating spicy food (capsaicin) is due to the release of dynorphin. The release of dynorphin causes an upregulation and sensitization of mu opioid receptors, which interact with beta-endorphin.46 This process is what underlies the “runner’s high” and is directly precipitated by the discomfort of physical exercise. Translation: the greater the discomfort experienced during your workout or sauna, the better the endorphin high will be afterward. Now you understand the underlying biological mechanism that explains this.
How is this relevant to hyperthermic conditioning and sauna use?
Heat stress from heat exposure in a dry sauna has been demonstrated to cause a potent increase in beta-endorphin levels, even more than exercise alone.1,15

A study in rats explains this somewhat: dynorphin delivered directly into a part of the hypothalamus in the brains of rats triggers a drop in their body temperature, while blocking dynorphin with an antagonist was shown to prevent this same response. Similarly, mu receptor agonists have been shown to induce increases in body temperature in rats.47 What this seems to imply is that perhaps, by deliberately manipulating your body temperature you are actually directly engaging the mu (endorphin) and kappa opioid (dynorphin) systems since they clearly play a role in temperature regulation in general.
In Conclusion
To recap and drive the point home: acclimating your body to heat stress by intermittent whole-body hyperthermia via sauna use (“hyperthermic conditioning”) has been shown to:

Enhance endurance by:
  • Increasing nutrient delivery to muscles thereby reducing the depletion of glycogen stores.
  • Reducing heart rate and reducing core temperature during workload.

Increase muscle hypertrophy by preventing protein degradation through the following three means:
  • Induction of heat shock proteins and a hormetic response (which has also been shown to increase longevity in lower organisms).
  • Cause a massive release of growth hormone.
  • Improving insulin sensitivity.

Hyperthermic conditioning also has robust positive effects on the brain:
  • Increases the storage and release of norepinephrine, which improves attention and focus.
  • Increases prolactin, which causes your brain to function faster by enhancing myelination and helps to repair damaged neurons.
  • Increases BDNF, which causes the growth of new brain cells, improves the ability for you to retain new information, and ameliorates certain types of depression and anxiety.
  • Causes a robust increase in dynorphin, which results in your body becoming more sensitive to the ensuing endorphins.

Life is stressful.

When you exercise, you are forcing your body to become more resilient to stress (somewhat paradoxically) through stress itself.

Hyperthermic conditioning is a novel and possibly effective tool that can improve your resistance to the sort of stress associated with fitness pursuits as well as some that are not traditionally associated with fitness such as the protective effects of HSPs on various types of stress. That being said, deliberately applied physical stress, whether heat stress or ordinary exercise, is something that requires caution.

You shouldn’t avoid it altogether, but you should use good common sense, not overwhelm yourself, and make sure to know your limits. (NOTE: you should not drink alcohol before or during sauna use as it increases the risk of death).48 Personal variation probably comes into play when finding your own sweet spot for building thermal tolerance while avoiding over-extending yourself.

I believe that hyperthermic conditioning in general may be worth a closer look as a tool in the toolbox of athletes. Perhaps it can be used for much more than just relaxation?

But no matter how enthusiastic you might be, remember:
  • Heat responsibly and with someone else, never alone.
  • Never heat yourself while drunk, and friends don’t let friends sauna drunk.
  • If you are pregnant or have any medical condition, saunas are not for you. Speak with your doctor before starting this or any regimen involving physical stressors.
Be careful, ladies and gents.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Dr. Rhonda Patrick

You can find more video and writing from Dr. Rhonda Patrick at her website,

Thursday, January 15, 2015

Eleventh Bro Session Announcement

If you have recently felt you needed some extra work with your clean and jerk then this Bro Session is definitely for you. The strength piece in part #1 is going to get the juicing flowing so to speak. Once this section is complete your nervous system should be wide awake and hopefully feeling good. Part #2 will revisit the clean and jerk but in this case we will use some variation in execution and a lighter load to vary the challenge. That being said make sure to scale the load here accordingly so that you are not working with a weight you may have used from part #1. From there it's on to deadlifts and some jumping fun and finally some burpees. What workout would be complete without burpees?!

Part #1

EMOM15 Clean and Jerk

  • 1 rep on the minute for 5 minutes @ 70%
  • 1 rep on the minute for 5 minutes @ 75%
  • 1 rep on the minute for 5 minutes @ 80%
  • 1 rep on the minute @ 85%
  • 1 rep on the minute @ 90%
  • 1 rep on the minute @ 95%
  • 1 rep on the minute @ 100%
  • 1 rep on the minute @ 105%
For this section the first 15 minutes should be a guarantee as the weights used should be manageable. Once you get into the 85%+ portion it is up to you to see how far you can get. If you fail to finish the work in a given minute then the workout is over. Likewise if you should hit a new PR then the workout is also otherwise done.

Part #2

Begin at 0:00

3 Rounds for Time
High Hang Squat Clean 155#/105#
Hang Squat Clean
Squat Clean
Push Press
High Hang Squat Clean
Hang Squat Clean
Squat Clean
Push Jerk
High Hang Squat Clean
Hang Squat Clean
Squat Clean
Split Jerk
Run 400 Meters

Begin at 25:00

Deadlift 225#/155#
Over/Under 24″

Begin at 45:00

AMRAP 10 Min
Burpee Pull Up Ladder
2 Burpees
2 Pull Ups
4 Burpees
4 Pull Ups
6 Burpees
6 Pull Ups…..

As high as you can get in 10 Min


Wednesday, January 14, 2015

All Your Nutrient Needs In One Place

For those of you unfamiliar with Dr. Rhonda Patrick I highly recommend that you seek out her website at and/or her Facebook page also FoundMyFitness. She is one of the most intelligent people out there and she is a phenomenal resource for health and wellness related information. She has been on the Barbell Shrugged Podcast and has her own YouTube channel as well. Check her out, start following her on Facebook and subscribe to her YouTube channel, I assure you you will be glad that you did. In the meantime this blog post is dedicated to her Micronutrient Power Smoothie. Dr. Patrick suggests that this one 64 ounce shake will satisfy the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) for almost all of you nutritional needs. She also provides an explanation as to why she includes the specific ingredients in question. Read up, write down the ingredients and start enjoying this morning smoothie. Then report back on how you are feeling.

Serving Size is ~64 fluid ounces (1.9 liters)
Ingredients (All Organic):
8 large kale leaves

4-6 rainbow chard leaves with stems
3 cups (~710 ml) of baby spinach (a large handful)
2 medium to large carrots
1 tomato
1 large avocado
1 banana
1 apple
1 cup (~710ml) of blueberries (fresh or frozen)
1 tall shot glass of flaxseed (optional)
3 cups (~710 ml) of unsweetened flax milk 

This is the micronutrient-dense smoothie that that all of us would benefit from drinking every morning. It will give you energy and will deliver most of the vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, and fiber you need for the day, plus, it is also satiating! A Blendtec or Vitamix blender are recommended because they demolish everything you put in there with little to no effort. In this guide, you will find a discussion of a few of the important micronutrients in the smoothie and an explanation of the important role they play in the human body. There is also a table with the micronutrient content in each ingredient and the total.

Kale: High in Magnesium, Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Sulforaphanes
Common to all the green leafy vegetables in this smoothie is the fact that they are all rich in magnesium. Magnesium is at the center of the chlorophyll molecule, which is responsible for the green pigment in plants so generally if you're eating green plants you can be pretty sure it is high in magnesium, and that's important because about 45% of the US does not meet the recommended daily allowance of just 350-400 milligrams (mg) of magnesium per day (1). This smoothie provides around 588 mg, more than the RDA. There are over 300 different enzymes in the body that actually require magnesium, including all the enzymes that use and produce ATP, the energetic currency of the cell, ATP must be bound to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active. These functions of magnesium are required for short term survival, and if you can’t make ATP you simply can’t live, which means any magnesium the body has is going to maintain energy production (2). But enzymes needed for energy protection aren't the only enzymes that require magnesium to function, unfortunately, DNA repair enzymes do too (3). That means if you're not getting enough magnesium because your diet doesn't have enough green leafy vegetables then you're forcing your body to choose between meeting your immediate energetic needs and keeping your DNA from accumulating damage, a well-known initiator of cancer. Among the green leafy vegetables crammed into this smoothie, there is more kale than anything else. Aside from the magnesium, kale is also good source of lutein and zeaxanthin, two carotenoids that are taken up by the retina in the eye in very high concentrations. They serve two important functions in the eye: they filter out damaging singlet oxygen that is produced from blue light from the sun and they have antioxidant activity. Lutein and zeaxanthin are present in high amounts in kale. There is a total of 390 mg of lutein and zeaxanthin in this recipe. Kale is a cruciferous vegetable, which means it is also high in sulfur-containing compounds known as sulforaphanes that are broken down into other compounds known as isothiocynates (sometime referred to as IC3s). When kale is chopped or chewed, enzymes in the plant called myrosinases, break the sulforphanes into isothiocynates. Isothiocyanates are some good stuff, and it's one reason why I do like to get some raw kale in my diet. When you cook kale you lose these benefits. The isothiocynates are what turn on and turn off different genes inside our cells. They inhibit phase I biotransformation enzymes, a class of enzymes that is responsible for transforming procarcinogens into their active carcinogenic state. Isothiocynates also activate phase II detoxification enzymes, which are a class of enzymes that play a protective role from DNA damage caused reactive oxygen species and carcinogens. In addition, IC3s also activate tumor suppressor genes and inhibit inflammation.

Spinach: High in Folate
Next up on the list is spinach. There about a 3 cups of spinach in this smoothie. Spinach is a great source of folate. Folate is an important for the incorporation of thymidine, a RNA nucleotide into DNA. When there is not enough folate, the body mis-incorporates uracil (which is found in RNA) into DNA and this causes a type of DNA damage that is similar to being irradiated. Folate is also an important component to making methyl groups, which is one of the major factors that is used to make epigenetic changes to DNA, which is why folate plays a major role in epigenetics. The RDA for folate is 400 micrograms (μg) per day, this smoothie has around 480μg.

Rainbow Chard: High in Vitamin K
This recipe uses around 4 rainbow chard leaves with the stems. Chard is high vitamin K1. Approximately 65% of US population has inadequate intake of vitamin K1, which is set bet 90-120 micrograms per day. There are around 5,000 μg of vitamin K1 in this recipe.The are two main biologically active forms of vitamin K, vitamin K1 and K2. Both vitamin K1 and K2 are required cofactors for proteins that serve three major functions:
  • ●  Coagulation, which is the clotting of blood and proteins. This function is what the RDA for vitamin K is based on.
  • ●  Preventing the calcification of the arteries and blood vessels by pulling calcium out of the bloodstream and bringing it to bones.
  • ●  Maintaining bone homeostasis by enabling bones to get the calcium they need. Vitamin K1 is rapidly cleared from the circulation and goes to the liver where it activates proteins that make sure the blood clots properly. You can imagine that is an important function for short-term survival because if you get injured, you don’t want to hemorrhage and bleed out. If enough vitamin K1 is adequate from the diet, then more of it can activate other proteins in the blood stream that are very important for long-term survival because they prevent calcification of the arteries and blood vessels. Calcification of arteries is involved in coronary artery disease. Coronary calcium levels are associated with a four-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease, athlerosclerosis, and vascular dementia, all of these are diseases of aging. If there is very little vitamin K1 in the diet then most of it will get sucked into the liver to activate blood clotting proteins and the other proteins that prevent calcification of the arteries will not get activated. Vitamin K2 can serve as a backup because it does not go to the liver, rather, it stays in the bloodstream longer and activates the same proteins that pull calcium out of blood vessels and bring it to the bones.

    Carrots and Tomato: High Beta Carotene and Lycopene
    Carotenoids are yellow, orange, and red pigments that are produced by plants. The most common carotenoids alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Carotenoids have antioxidant activity due to their unique structure. Some carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A, such as alpha and beta carotene. There are two medium size carrots in this smoothie. Carrots are are great source of beta carotene that is a pro-vitamin A carotenoid because it can be converted into Retinol. In addition, beta carotene also to has antioxidant activity. 34% of the population does not get enough vitamin A, which is essential for normal immune system function and vision. When the body has enough vitamin A, the beta carotene is used as an antioxidant and is not converted into vitamin A. This micronutrient smoothie has around 54 mg of beta carotene. Tomatoes are high in lycopene, which are a type of carotenoid that cannot be converted into vitamin A but is a very potent antioxidant. After it is absorbed it accumulates in most tissues in the body. Lycopene inhibits angiogenesis, which is the growth of new blood vessels and is a mechanism by which tumor cells grow and metastasize.

Avocado: High in Potassium, Vitamin E, and Monounsaturated Fat
This recipe usually calls for a large size avocado. Avocados are a great source of potassium, one large avocado has close to 1,000 mg. The adequate intake for potassium in adults is 4,700 mg (or 4.7g) per day and is really hard to get. Approximately 97% of Americans do not meet this requirement for potassium, which is based on intake levels that have been found to lower blood pressure, and minimize the risk of kidney stones. The smoothie has around 5,883 mg of potassium, which meets the RDA. Avocados are also a good source of mixed tocopherols, including alpha and gamma, and tocotrienols. 60% of US population does not get enough vitamin E, which prevents lipoproteins from being oxidized and is part of an important mechanism for preventing atherosclerosis. Avocados are also high in monounsatured fat, which happens to dramatically increase the absorption of all the carotenoids in the smoothie including betacarotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. The fat helps gives this smoothie a good consistency as well.

Apples and Blueberries: High in the Flavanoids Quercetin, Anthocyanins, Epicatechins
There is also a little fruit added to this smoothie. A whole apple with skin and a cup of frozen or fresh blueberries (depending on the season). The apple skin and blueberries are high in flavanoids, which are a large family of compounds that are produced by plants. Apple peels contain quercetin and epicatechins and blueberries are very high in anthocyanins. The flavanoids can bind and sequester free radicals (that are very reactive and can damage DNA, proteins, and lipids in the cell). Flavanoids are also xenobiotics so they activate phase 2 detoxification enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in the body. This is a general mechanism by which they lower inflammation and oxidation in the body, including the brain. They also inhibit angiogenesis and tumor metastasis.

Flaxseed and Flax Milk: High in Alpha Linoleic Acid
Flaxseed and flax milk are a good source of the plant omega-3 fatty acid alpha linoleic acid (ALA). Men can convert ~8% of ALA into EPA and 4% into DHA (13). Estrogen increases the conversion efficiency: 21% of ALA can be converted to EPA and 9% can be converted to DHA (13). 

Micronutrient content in each ingredient and total:
Kale (8 leaves)
magnesium 200 mg 
calcium 633 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 389 mg 

potassium 2,062 mg 
vitamin C 504 mg
beta carotene 25,174 μg 

vitamin B6 1.3 mg 
pantothenic acid 0.6 mg thiamin 0.6 mg
riboflavin 0.6 mg
niacin 4.4 mg
folate 122 μg
vitamin K 3,430 μg 

manganese 3.1 mg 
phosphorous 235 mg
zinc 1.9 mg
copper 1.3 mg
selenium 3.8 μg
iron 7 mg
sodium 181 mg
ALA 759 mg
Spinach (per 3 cup or 1.5 chopped)
magnesium 72 mg 
calcium 90 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 57 mg 

potassium 167 mg vitamin C 25.2 mg 
vitamin K 441 μg
beta carotene 5064 μg 

vitamin E 1.8 mg
vitamin B6 0.3 mg 

riboflavin 0.1 mg
niacin 0.6 mg
folate 174.6 μg
zinc 0.6 mg
selenium 0.9 μg 

manganese 0.9 mg 
phosphorous 45 mg 
sodium 82 mg
iron 2.4 mg
choline 16.2 mg
ALA 124.2 mg
fiber 3 g

Rainbow chard (4 leafs)
magnesium 180 mg 
calcium 276 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 22 mg 

potassium 1316 mg 
vitamin C 58 mg
vitamin K 1592 μg
beta carotene 7340 μg 

vitamin E 4 mg
vitamin B6 mg 

pantothenic acid 0.4 mg 
niacin 1.6 mg
folate 41 μg
zinc 0.8 mg
copper 0.4 mg
selenium 4 μg 

manganese 1.2 mg 
phosphorous 100 mg 
sodium 410 mg
choline 46.8 mg
ALA 13.6 mg
fiber 8 g
Carrots (2 medium)
magnesium 39 mg
calcium 25 mg
lutein +zeaxanthin 0.6 mg 

potassium 416 mg 
vitamin C 8 mg
beta carotene 107,71 μg 

vitamin B6 0.18 mg 
vitamin K 16.2 μg
niacin 1.2 mg
folate 23 μg
selenium 0.2 μg
zinc 0.3 mg
iron 0.9 mg
manganese 0.2 mg 

phosphorous 41 mg 
sodium 84 mg
ALA 2.4 mg
fiber 4 g

Tomato (1 small)
magnesium 11 mg
 calcium 5.6 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 116 μg 

potassium 237 mg 
vitamin C 14 mg
beta carotene 8,285 μg 

vitamin A 449 μg
vitamin B6 0.8 mg
vitamin K 8 μg 

pantothenic acid 0.2 mg 
riboflavin 0.1 mg
niacin 0.7 mg
folate 32 μg
zinc 0.2 mg
copper 0.1 mg
selenium 0.4 μg
iron 0.5 mg
manganese 0.114 mg 

phosphorous 24 mg
fiber 1.2 g
lycopene 2,573 μg
ALA 3.3 mg
Avocado (1 large avocado)
magnesium 54 mg 
calcium 20 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 542 μg 

potassium 975 mg 
vitamin C 17 mg
beta carotene 124 μg 

vitamin B6 0.52 mg 
Pantothenic acid 2.8 mg 
folate 175 μg
vitamin K 41 μg
vitamin E 3.83 IU 

manganese 0.28 mg 
phosphorous 104 mg
ALA 150 mg
fiber 14 g
saturated fat 4.3 g 

monounsaturated fat 20 g

Apple (1 medium)
magnesium 9 mg 
calcium 11 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 52 μg 

potassium 193 mg 
vitamin C 8.3 mg
beta carotene 49 μg 

vitamin B6 0.72 mg 
folate 5.4 μg
vitamin K 4 μg 

manganese 0.06 mg 
phosphorous 22 mg 
fiber 4 g
quercetin 8 mg 

epicatechin 200 μg
Blueberries (per 1 cup)
magnesium 9.8 mg 
calcium 23.8 mg 
potassium 95.2 mg 
vitamin C 2.4 mg 
vitamin E 0.4 mg 
beta carotene 50 μg 
niacin 0.9 mg
zinc 0.9 mg
iron 0.8 mg
manganese 4 mg
phosphorous 18.2 mg
sodium 4.2 mg
anthocyanins + proanthocyanins 300-400 mg

Flax Milk (3 cups or 710 ml)
ALA 3,600 mg 
vitamin A 30 μg 
vitamin B12 1.8 μg 
calcium 1080 mg 
phosphorous 315 mg 
sodium 240 mg
Iron 0.5 mg 
vitamin D2 600 IU

Banana (small is ~100g)
magnesium 60.8 mg 
calcium 11.3 mg 
potassium 422 mg lutein + zeaxanthin μg 
vitamin C 10.3 mg
beta carotene 45 μg 

vitamin B6 0.4 mg 
vitamin K 0.6 μg vitamin E 0.1 mg 
pantothenic acid 0.4 mg 
riboflavin 0.1 mg
niacin 0.8 mg
folate 23.6 μg 

choline 11.3 mg 
zinc 0.2 mg
copper 0.1 mg 

selenium 1.2 μg 
iron 0.3 mg 
manganese 0.3 mg 
phosphorous 26 mg 
fiber 2.6 g
ALA 31.9 mg
Total (without flaxseed)
magnesium 588 mg* 
calcium mg 2,116 mg*
potassium 5,883 mg* 
vitamin K 5,239 μg* 
vitamin C 630 mg* 
vitamin E 9 IU
vitamin A 4,530 μg* 
vitamin D2 600 IU
beta carotene 53.5 mg 

vitamin B6 3 mg* 
pantothenic acid 4.4 mg* 
vitamin B12 1.8 μg 
thiamin 0.6 mg
riboflavin 0.9 mg 
niacin 10 mg
folate 480 μg* 

manganese 9.6 mg* 
phosphorous 700 mg* 
zinc 4.5 mg
copper 1.9 mg*
selenium 10 μg
iron 10.8 mg*
sodium 985 mg
lutein + zeaxanthin 390 mg 

ALA 4,684 mg* *
fiber 49 g* *

* Meets RDA
*Flaxseed contains extra 6,388 mg of ALA and 8g of fiber.